中国大陆科学家首获国际Dal Swaine奖

太阳娱乐 2

中国大陆科学家首获国际Dal Swaine奖

太阳娱乐 1

11月27日下午2:30,由动院邀请来我校的Dr. Rajender
Gupta教授在紫金校区综合楼318教室作了题目为《Research of Clean coal
technology in University of
Alberta》的学术报告。动力工程学院院长赵孝保教授及众多老师、研究生和高年级本科生参加了报告。
Dr. Rajender
Gupta教授是国际洁净煤利用研究领域知名学者,1985年在澳大利亚Newcastle大学获得博士学位,现任加拿大Alberta大学化学与材料工程系教授,曾获得美国匹斯堡煤科学最佳论文奖和美国工程基金会Richard
Bryer奖,是国际燃烧学会和美国化学工程师学会高级会员,曾在国际学术期刊和会议上发表了150多篇学术论文。在洁净煤研究领域与美国电力研究所、英国帝国理工大学和我国清华大学等许多国际知名研究机构建立了良好的合作关系。此次报告全场用英文讲解,Dr.
Rajender
Gupta教授详细、中肯地介绍了自己研究团队的研究工作,希望能够借此机会与南京师范大学动力工程学院建立长期、友好的学术交流渠道。
报告中,Dr. Rajender
Gupta教授从洁净煤利用技术对当前控制全球气候变暖及燃煤污染物排放所具有的重大意义开始,阐述了现在国际上最先进的洁净煤利用的技术手段和加拿大Alberta大学在该方向上的最新研究进展,就此分以下几个方面展开了讲解:“Oxyfiring
Combustion of Coal for capturing CO2 from fossil fuel combustion and
sequestration of CO2”,“Trace elemental emission and control in
pre-combustion and post-combustion of coal”,“Combustion and
Gasification of Coal and Biomass”, “Advanced Coal and Biomass
Characterisation Techniques”,“Mineral matter in Coal and Thermal
Performance of Boilers”,
最后通过一个加拿大正在消融的、美丽的大湖冰川照片,为我们展示了控制温室气体和燃煤污染物排放的紧迫性。随后Dr.
Rajender Gupta教授回答了师生的问题并与参会人员进行了热烈的讨论和交流。
Dr. Rajender
Gupta教授的此次学术报告给我院与会师生提供了一次难得的、在全英语环境下的学术交流机会,给了大家很大的启发和激励。

近日,在加拿大卡尔加里举行的第34届国际有机岩石学大会上,中国矿业大学资源学院代世峰教授荣获国际Dal
Swaine奖。

Coal, a combustible organic rock [1] composed primarily of carbon,
hydrogen, and oxygen [2]. Coal is burned to produce energy and is used
to manufacture steel. It is also an important source of chemicals used
to make medicine, fertilizers, pesticides [3], and other products.
Coal comes from ancient plants buried over millions of years in Earth’s
crust [4], its outermost layer [5]. Coal, petroleum, natural gas,
and oil shale [6] are all known as fossil fuels [7] because they
come from the remains of ancient life buried deep in the crust.

Coal is a sedimentary rock [1] formed from plants that flourished
millions of years ago when tropical swamps [2] covered large areas of
the world. Lush vegetation [3], such as early club mosses [4],
horsetails [5], and enormous ferns, thrived in these swamps.
Generations of this vegetation died and settled to the swamp bottom, and
over time the organic material lost oxygen and hydrogen, leaving the
material with a high percentage of carbon. Layers of mud and sand [6]
accumulated over the decomposed plant matter, compressing and hardening
the organic material as the sediments deepened. Over millions of years,
deepening sediment layers, known as overburden, exerted tremendous heat
and pressure on the underlying plant matter, which eventually became
coal.

太阳娱乐 2

Dal Swaine奖是为纪念著名的澳大利亚能源地质学家Dal Swaine而设立的。Dal
Swaine在煤的地球化学和环境地球化学领域作出了杰出的贡献,该奖以其名字命名,以表彰在煤和烃源岩地球化学领域作出重要贡献的科学家,每年只奖励一项研究成果。代世峰教授和澳大利亚新南威尔士大学Ian
Graham、Colin
Ward教授因对煤中稀土元素的研究共同获得该奖,获奖成果为论文A review of
anomalous rare earth elements and yttrium in
coal
(该成果2016年发表在国际著名期刊International Journal of Coal
Geology,159卷,82-95页,作者:Shifeng Dai, Ian T. Graham, Colin R.
Ward)。

Coal is rich in hydrocarbons [8](compounds made up of the elements
hydrogen and carbon). All life forms contain hydrocarbons, and in
general, material that contains hydrocarbons is called organic material.
Coal originally formed from ancient plants that died, decomposed, and
were buried under layers of sediment [9] during the Carboniferous
Period [10], about 360 million to 290 million years ago. As more and
more layers of sediment formed over this decomposed plant material, the
overburden [11] exerted increasing heat and weight on the organic
matter. Over millions of years, these physical conditions caused coal to
form from the carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and inorganic
mineral [12] compounds in the plant matter. The coal formed in layers
known as seams.

Before decayed plant material [7] forms coal, the plant material forms
a dark brown, compact organic material known as peat [8]. Although
peat will burn when dried, it has a low carbon and high moisture content
relative to coal. Most of coal’s heating value comes from carbon,
whereas inorganic materials, such as moisture and minerals [9],
detract from its heating value. For this reason, peat is a less
efficient fuel source than coal. Over time, as layers of sediment
accumulate over the peat, this organic material forms lignite [10],
the lowest grade of coal. As the thickening geologic overburden
gradually drives moisture from the coal and increases its fixed carbon
content, coal evolves from lignite into successively higher-graded
coals: subbituminous coal [11], bituminous coal [12], and anthracite
[13]. Anthracite, the highest rank of coal, has nearly twice the
heating value of lignite.

报告题目:1. Mineral matter Analytical techniques

据悉,这是中国大陆科学家首次获得该奖项,以往获奖者主要来自美国、新西兰、澳大利亚、加拿大、日本、德国、瑞士等国。

Plant matter changes into coal in stages. In each successive stage,
higher pressure and heat from the accumulating overburden increase the
carbon content of the plant matter and drive out more of its moisture
content [13]. Scientists classify coal according to its fixed carbon
content [14], or the amount of carbon the coal produces when heated
under controlled conditions. Higher grades of coal have a higher fixed
carbon content.

太阳娱乐,Coal formation began during the Carboniferous Period (known as the first
coal age), which spanned 360 million to 290 million years ago. Coal
formation continued throughout the Permian [14], Triassic [15],
Jurassic [16], Cretaceous [17], and Tertiary [18] Periods, which
spanned 290 million to 1.6 million years ago. Coals formed during the
first coal age are older, so they are generally located deeper in
Earth’s crust. The greater heat and pressures at these depths produce
higher-grade coals such as anthracite and bituminous coals. Conversely,
coals formed during the second coal age under less intense heat and
pressure are generally located at shallower depths. Consequently, these
coals tend to be lower-grade subbituminous and lignite coals.

  1. Mineral matter Coal combustion products

  2. Modes of occurrence of trace elements in coal

  3. Health impacts of the elements in coal

  4. A current volcanic related project topic

NOTES TO THE TEXT

Coal contains organic (carbon-containing) compounds transformed from
ancient plant material. The original plant material was composed of
cellulose [19], the reinforcing material [20] in plant cell walls
[21]; lignin [22], the substance that cements plant cells together;
tannins [23], a class of compounds in leaves and stems; and other
organic compounds, such as fats and waxes. In addition to carbon, these
organic compounds contain hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur. After
a plant dies and begins to decay on a swamp bottom, hydrogen and oxyge

报 告 人:David French教授 澳大利亚新南威尔士大学

[1] organic rock:有机岩

n (and smaller amounts of other elements) gradually dissociate from the
plant matter, increasing its relative carbon content.

Ian Graham教授 澳大利亚新南威尔士大学

[2] carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen:碳,氢和氧

Coal also contains inorganic components, known as ash. Ash includes
minerals such as pyrite [24] and marcasite [25] formed from metals
that accumulated in the living tissues of the ancient plants. Quartz
[26], clay, and other minerals are also added to coal deposits by wind
and groundwater [27]. Ash [28] lowers the fixed carbon content of
coal, decreasing its heating value.

Robert Finkelman教授 美国德克萨斯大学

[3] pesticides:农药

NOTES TO THE TEXT

报告地点:资源楼B401

[4] Earth’s crust:地壳

[1] sedimentary rock:沉积岩

报告时间:4月1日9:00-11:30;14:00-17:30

[5] outermost layer:最外层地层

[2] tropical swamps:热带沼泽

欢迎广大师生光临指导!

[6] oil shale:油页岩

[3] Lush vegetation:茂盛的植物

[7] fossil fuels:化石燃料

[4] club mosses:石松

[8] hydrocarbons:碳氢化合物

[5] horsetails:马尾(木贼属的一种植物)

[9] layers of sediment :沉积层

[6] layers of mud and sand:泥砂层

[10] Carboniferous Period:石炭纪

[7] decayed plant material:腐烂的植物材料

[11] overburden:覆盖岩层

[8] peat:泥炭

[12] inorganic mineral:无机材料

[9] minerals:矿物

[13] moisture content:含水量

[10] lignite:褐煤

[14] fixed carbon content:固定碳含量

[11] subbituminous coal:次烟煤

[12] bituminous coal:烟煤

[13] anthracite:无烟煤

[14] Permian:二叠纪

[15] Triassic:三叠纪

[16] Jurassic:侏罗纪

[17] Cretaceous:白垩纪

[18] Tertiary:第三纪

[19] cellulose:纤维素

[20] reinforcing material:加固的材料

[21] cell walls:细胞壁

[22] lignin:木质

[23] tannins:丹宁,鞣酸

[24] pyrite:黄铁矿

[25] marcasite :白铁矿

[26] quartz:石英

[27] groundwater:地下水

[28] ash:灰分

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